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绡悆绔炲僵璁╁垎瑙勫垯 :為什么億萬富翁還要繼續工作?

篮球竞彩nba www.xvrnl.com   Why Don’t Rich People Just Stop Working?

  為什么億萬富翁還要繼續工作?

  “Billionaires should not exist,” Sen. Bernie Sanders said last month. And, at the Democratic presidential debate this week, he said that the wealth disparity in America is “a moral and economic outrage.”

  “億萬富翁不應該存在,”參議員伯尼·桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)上個月說。在本周的民主黨總統候選人辯論中,他說美國的貧富差距是“一種道德和經濟暴行”。

  “Senator Sanders is right,” said Tom Steyer, a businessman from California who happened to be the only billionaire onstage that night (as far as we know).

  “桑德斯參議員是對的,”加州商人湯姆·斯泰爾(Tom Steyer)說。他碰巧是(我們所知的)當晚臺上唯一的億萬富翁。

  “No one on this stage wants to protect billionaires — not even the billionaire wants to protect billionaires,” noted Sen. Amy Klobuchar.

  “在這個講臺上,沒有人想要?;ひ諭蚋晃?mdash;—即使是億萬富翁也不想?;ひ諭蚋晃?,”參議員艾米·克羅布查(Amy Klobuchar)說。

  It’s an idea that’s going around. Mark Zuckerberg, the Facebook founder who is worth close to $70 billion, is apparently open to it. “I don’t know that I have an exact threshold on what amount of money someone should have,” he said in livestreamed question-and-answer session with company employees in early October. “But on some level, no one deserves to have that much money.”

  這個想法隨處可見。身家近700億美元的Facebook創始人馬克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)顯然也贊成。“我不知道我對一個人應該擁有多少錢有沒有什么確切的門檻,”他在10月初與公司員工的直播問答環節中說。“但在某種程度上,沒有人應該擁有那么多錢。”

  Yet here we are, chugging into the 10th year of an extremely top-heavy economic boom in which the 1 percenters, by all statistical measures, have won, creating the greatest wealth disparity since the Jazz Age. This era, in length and gains, dwarfs the “greed is good” 1980s, that era of yellow ties, nigiri rolls and designer espresso machines that has come to symbolize gilded excess in popular imagination.

  然而我們創造了自爵士時代以來最大的貧富差距,進入經濟極度繁榮的第10個年頭,根據所有的統計數據,1%贏了。這個時代無論在時間長度還是在增長方面,都讓奉行“貪婪是好事”的1980年代相形見絀,也就是那個黃色領帶、手握壽司和設計師款意式咖啡機成為大眾想象中的富華象征的時代。

  And yet the only thing we know in this casino-like economy — a casino that may, in fact, soon be shuttered — is that for those at the top, too much is never enough.

  然而,在這個賭場式經濟——事實上這座賭場可能即將關閉——中,我們所知的唯一一件事是,對于那些處于頂層的人來說,再多也永遠不夠。

  Many normal, non-billionaire people wonder: Why is that?

  許多普通的非億萬富翁想知道:為什么會這樣?

  Studies over the years have indicated that the rich, unlike the leisured gentry of old, tend to work longer hours and spend less time socializing. Tim Cook, the chief executive of Apple, whose worth has been estimated in the hundreds of millions, has said that he wakes up at 3:45 a.m. to mount his daily assault on his corporate rivals. Elon Musk, the man behind Tesla and SpaceX, is worth some $23 billion but nevertheless considers it a victory that he dialed back his “bonkers” 120-hour workweeks to a more “manageable” 80 or 90.

  多年來的研究表明,富人與那些悠閑的老紳士不同,他們的工作時間更長,社交時間更少。蘋果公司(Apple)首席執行官蒂姆·庫克(Tim Cook)的身家估計在數億美元,他說自己每天凌晨3點45分起床,向公司的競爭對手發起每日攻擊。特斯拉(Tesla)和SpaceX的掌門人埃隆·馬斯克(Elon Musk)身家約230億美元,他把自己每周120小時的“瘋狂”工作時間調至更“好對付”的80或90小時,還覺得這是一種勝利。

  And they continue to diversify. Lady Gaga makes a reported $1 million per show in her residency at the Park MGM in Las Vegas, and has evolved from pop music to conquer film — but still also recently unveiled a cosmetics venture with Amazon.

  他們在不斷多元化。據報道,Lady Gaga在拉斯維加斯美高梅公園駐場演唱會每場收入100萬美元,并從流行音樂進軍電影,但最近她還與亞馬遜合作了一個化妝品項目。

  Almost everything rich people touch makes money, but this current financial inferno has meant little for the bottom 50% of earners in the United States, who have 32% less wealth than they did in 2003.

  富人接觸的幾乎所有東西都能賺錢,但目前的金融地獄對美國收入最低的50%的人來說意義不大,他們的財富比2003年減少了32%。

  The 1% have, as of last decade, 85% of their net worth tied up in investments like stocks, bonds and private equity, where value has exploded. According to Redfin, the average sale price of properties in the top 5% are up 43% nationally over the past decade, and up even more in Los Angeles and San Francisco.

  過去10年,1%階層有85%的凈資產投資于股票、債券和私募股權等價值激增的投資領域。Redfin的數據顯示,在過去10年里,全美前5%的房產平均售價上漲了43%,洛杉磯和舊金山的漲幅甚至更大。

  Fine vintage watches, which have become a must-have for the young male money class, are exploding in value, with prices on certain five-figure models of Rolexes doubling in just a few years.

  高檔古董表已成為年輕男性富人階層的必備品,其價值正呈現爆炸式增長,某些勞力士(Rolex)5位數型號的價格在短短幾年內翻了一番。

  Gold, once derided as a relic, is up 40% in the past few years.

  一度被嘲笑為過時的黃金在過去幾年價格上漲了40%。

  What’s happening?

  發生了什么事情?

  馬克·扎克伯格

No One Has a Retirement Number These Days 如今沒有人有理想退休金額

  “What’s your number?” asked anyone caught up in the dot-com boom of the 1990s.

  “你的理想退休金額是多少?”在1990年代的互聯網熱潮中,所有人都會這樣問。

  Could you retire to Napa with $5 million? $20 million?

  你能帶著500萬美元退休去納帕嗎?2000萬美元呢?

  Some hit their number and some went bust, but Silicon Valley is more than ever a showcase for the unfettered capitalism of 2019.

  有些人達到了目標,有些人破產了,但是2019年的硅谷比以往任何時候都更能讓人看到,什么是不受約束的資本主義。

  Yet no one seems to talk about their number anymore, said Antonio García Martínez, who sold a startup to Twitter and served as a Facebook product manager before publishing his memoir, “Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley,” in 2016.

  然而,安東尼奧·加西亞·馬丁內斯(Antonio García Martínez)說,似乎沒有人再談論他們的理想退休金額了。他把自己的初創公司賣給了Twitter,并在Facebook擔任產品經理,之后于2016年出版回憶錄《混亂的猴子——硅谷的骯臟財富和隨機失敗》(Chaos Monkeys: Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley)。

  Yesterday’s big score is just seed capital for tomorrow’s bigger one.

  昨天的大數字只是明天更大數字的種子資本。

  “There’s never some omega point,” García Martínez, 43, said. “People who get to that point don’t stop once they get there.”

  “從來沒有什么‘歐米伽點’,”43歲的加西亞·馬丁內斯說。“人到了那個點并不會停下來。”

  “People say, ‘Why don’t you develop a hobby, or do philanthropy?’ ” García Martínez said. “But for many, they simply can’t stop doing it. They derive transcendent meaning from capitalism. Without their money, what else would they have?”

紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com

  “人們會說,‘你為什么不培養一種愛好,或者做點慈善呢?’”加西亞·馬丁內斯說。“但是對于很多人來說,他們就是停不下來。他們從資本主義中獲得了卓越的意義。沒了錢他們還能有什么?”

  At a time of low taxes, friendly interest rates and torrents of venture capital available to would-be moguls, it’s a historical moment in the quest for more among the entrepreneurial class.

  這是一個低稅收、利率友好、未來大亨可以擁有源源不斷的風險資本的時代,這是創業階層尋求更多機會的歷史性時刻。

  Tim Ferriss, the life-hacking author and podcast star who was an angel investor in Silicon Valley for nearly a decade, wrote in an email that many of these people have been “navigating work and life in sixth gear for decades.”

  蒂姆·費里斯(Tim Ferriss)是生活破解領域的作者和播客明星,曾在硅谷做了近十年的天使投資人,他在電子郵件中寫道,這些人中的許多人“幾十年來一直以第六檔的高速度在工作和生活中行駛”。

Without Constant Work, We Must Face the Nature of Existence 沒有了永不停止的工作,我們就必須面對存在的本質

  “Once they have no financial need to work — are ‘post-economic,’ as some say in San Francisco — they have trouble shifting into lower gears,” Ferriss wrote. “They’re like drag racers who now have to learn to navigate the turns and intersections of neighborhoods at 30 mph.”

  “一旦他們沒有了工作的經濟需要——就像舊金山的一些人所說的,進入了‘后經濟時代’——他們就很難轉到低速檔,”費里斯寫道。“他們就像直線競速賽車手,現在必須學會以每小時30英里的速度在居民區街角和十字路口駕駛。”

  “Without ambitious projects to fill space,” he added, “there is often a void that makes some of the bigger questions hard to avoid. The things you neglected are no longer drowned out by noise; they are the signal. It’s like facing the Ghost of Christmas Past.”

  “如果沒有雄心勃勃的項目來填補空間,”他還寫道,“往往會出現空白,讓一些更大的問題無從避免。你忽略的事情不再被噪音淹沒;它們成了信號。就像面對舊日圣誕節幽靈一樣。”

  In a sense, it has been going on in this country for 2 1/2 centuries. “We are a nation founded on the overthrow of kings and the idle rich, so the hustle is deeply baked into mainstream notions of what it means to be American,” said Margaret O’Mara, a history professor at the University of Washington who is a New York Times opinion contributor.

  在某種意義上,這種情況已經在這個國家持續了兩個半世紀。“我們的國家建國的基礎就是推翻國王和無所事事的富人,所以這種忙碌感深深融入了美國人身份認同的主流觀念,”華盛頓大學(University of Washington)歷史學教授、《紐約時報》觀點撰稿人瑪格麗特·奧馬拉(Margaret O’Mara)說。

Rich People Know Too Many Rich People 有錢人認識太多有錢人

  With the number of Americans making $1 million or more spiking by 40% between 2010 and 2016, according to the Internal Revenue Service, you may think that the rich are finally feeling flush enough to ease up, kick back, chill out.

  國稅局(Internal Revenue Service)的數據顯示,2010年至2016年,美國年收入在100萬美元以上的人的數量激增了40%,你可能會認為,富人們終于感到手頭寬裕,可以休息、放松、舒服一下了。

  They are not.

  他們沒有。

  One recent Harvard survey of 4,000 millionaires found that people worth $8 million or more were scarcely happier than those worth $1 million.

  哈佛大學(Harvard)最近對4000名百萬富翁進行的一項調查發現,財富在800萬美元以上的人并不比財富在100萬美元以上的人更幸福。

  In a widely cited 2006 study, rich people reported that they spend more time doing things they were required to do.

  在2006年一項被廣泛引用的研究中,富人們稱,他們花了更多的時間做他們被要求做的事情。

  Why do they want to do this to themselves?

  他們為什么要這樣對待自己?

  The fact that there are more rich people who are, in fact, richer than ever may be part of the reason.

  事實上,比以往任何時候都富有的富人越來越多,這可能是部分原因。

  Sociologists have long talked about “relative income hypothesis.” We tend to measure material satisfaction by those around us — not in absolute terms.

  社會學家一直在討論“相對收入假說”。也就是說,我們傾向于用周圍的人來衡量自己對物質的滿足——而不是使用絕對的標準。

  “For most people, enough is enough,” said Robert Frank, the wealth editor for CNBC and the author of the 2007 book “Richistan: A Journey Through the American Wealth Boom and the Lives of the New Rich,” who has interviewed many plutocrats. “But there is another group of people, no matter what they have, they have to keep going. I call them ‘scorekeepers.’ They’re truly driven by competitive zeal.”

  “對大多數人來說,足夠了就是足夠了,” CNBC臺的財富編輯羅伯特·弗蘭克(Robert Frank)說。“但還有另一群人,不管他們擁有什么,他們必須繼續前進。我管他們叫‘記分員’。他們真正的驅動力是對競爭的狂熱。”

Money Is Like Alcohol but for Money 金錢就像酒精,但追求的是金錢

  Living inside bubbles, the rich need greater excess just to feel the same high, said Steven Berglas, a psychologist, executive coach and author.

  心理學家、高管教練和作家史蒂文·伯格拉斯(Steven Berglas)表示,生活在與外界隔絕的泡泡之中的富人需要更多的放縱,才能感受到同樣的快感。

  “If you’re an alcoholic,” he said, “you’re going to take one drink, two drinks, five drinks, six drinks to feel the buzz. Well, when you get a million dollars, you need 10 million dollars to feel like a king. Money is an addictive substance.”

  “如果你是個酒鬼,”他說,“你喝上一杯,之后就得再喝上兩杯、五杯、六杯,才能感受到酒精的刺激。當你有一百萬美元的時候,你需要一千萬美元才能感覺自己像個國王。錢是會令人上癮的東西。”<紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com/>

  Feeding the addiction becomes even more challenging in a top-heavy economy where the price tags of the status symbols keep adding zeros.

  在一個頭重腳輕的經濟里,地位象征的價格標簽后面不斷地加零,滿足金錢之癮變得更加困難。

  For the superrich looking to buy their way in to professional sports, it’s no longer enough to have courtside seats or a luxury box. You need a team. They’re pricey.

  對于那些希望通過金錢進入職業體育領域的超級富豪來說,擁有場邊座位或豪華包廂已經不夠了。你得擁有一個隊才行。那是非常昂貴的。

  The Golden State Warriors, for example, sold in 2010 for an NBA record $450 million to an ownership group headed by Joe Lacob, a Silicon Valley venture capitalist. The team is now valued at $3.5 billion.

  例如,2010年,金州勇士隊(Golden State Warriors)以創紀錄的4.5億美元賣給了一個由硅谷風險投資家喬·萊科布(Joe Lacob)領導的所有權集團。該隊目前價值35億美元。

  Even that is not enough. Now you have to build the biggest, flashiest arena. The Warriors owners recently put the finishing touches on a gleaming new waterfront arena in San Francisco called the Chase Center. It was financed largely by themselves for $1.4 billion.

  但這還不夠。現在你還得興建最大、最華麗的球場。勇士隊的所有人們最近在舊金山新建了一座熠熠生輝的濱水球場,名為“大通中心”(Chase Center)。它的14億美元造價主要是由他們自己承擔。

  Not to be left behind, Steve Ballmer, the former Microsoft chief and owner of the rival Los Angeles Clippers, is seeking to build a $1 billion pleasure dome of his own in Inglewood, California.

  微軟前首席執行官、洛杉磯快船隊(Los Angeles Clippers)老板史蒂夫·鮑爾默(Steve Ballmer)也不甘落后,他正尋求在加州英格爾伍德建造一座價值10億美元的球場。

  Clustered courtside together at the sporting palaces, the celebrities, naturally, begin to envy the fortunes of the moguls near them.

  在這些體育宮殿里,聚集在場邊的各路名流自然開始羨慕起他們身邊那些大亨們的財富。

The Rich Suspect the Roller Coaster Is About to Crash 富人們懷疑過山車式致富模式即將崩潰

  As a hedge fund veteran, precious metals adviser and financial author, James Rickards is a rich guy who talks to a lot of other rich guys. They don’t always like what he has to say.

  作為一名對沖基金老手、貴金屬顧問和金融作家,詹姆斯·里卡茲(James Rickards)是個與許多其他富人交談的富人。他們有時不太喜歡聽到他的看法。

  He believes that the current debt-fueled recovery may be a prelude for an economic collapse to dwarf the Great Recession. Until recently, he said, such theories were met with polite lack of interest by many wealthy people. Lately, something has changed.

  他認為,目前由債務推動的復蘇可能是一場使大蕭條(Great Depression)相形見絀的經濟崩潰的前奏。他表示,前不久這種觀點還受到許多富人禮貌的冷遇。但最近,情況有些變化。

  “Literally, in a matter of weeks, certainly a couple of months, the phone calls have had a different tone to them,” Rickards said. “What I’m hearing is, ‘I’ve got the money. How do I hang on to it?’ ‘Are gold futures going to hold up or should I have bullion?’ ‘If I have bullion, should I put it in a bag in a private vault?’ ”

  “實際上,在幾周、當然是幾個月的時間里,電話里的語氣不同了,”里卡茲說。“我現在聽到的是,‘我手里有錢。怎么才能保住’?‘黃金期貨能撐住嗎,還是應該持有金條?‘如果我有金條,我該把它放在私人保險庫的袋子里嗎?’”

  “It’s a level of concern that I’ve never heard from the superrich,” he said. “The tone of voice is, ‘I need an answer now!’”

  “這樣的擔憂程度,我從來沒從超級富豪那里聽到過。”他說。“那種語氣是,‘我現在就需要答案!’”

  It is not just the rockiness of the stock market. The fears of the wealthy seem to be of a more existential nature.

  不只是股市動蕩那么簡單。富人懷有的似乎是一種關乎生存的恐懼。

  It is as if the very people who have profited most from these good times cannot believe that times are good — or that they will stay good, in the event of, say, a Bernie Sanders presidency.

  仿佛從這些好時光中獲益最多的人,恰恰無法相信現在是好時光——也不相信比方說,伯尼·桑德斯當上總統后,還會繼續是好時光。

  Paul Singer, who oversees the behemoth Elliot Management fund, is reportedly tapping investors for billions as a war chest for a possible market implosion.

  管理著龐大的埃利奧特管理基金(Elliot Management fund)的保羅·辛格(Paul Singer)據信正在向投資者募集數十億美元資金,以應對可能出現的市場崩盤。

  Among the tech zillionaire classes, a place to bug out in the event of an economic collapse, environmental disaster or violent uprising became the thing to have.

  在科技界的億萬富翁階層中,一旦發生經濟崩潰、環境災難或暴力騷亂,一個可以逃離的地方成了必須擁有的東西。

  After he left Facebook, García Martínez himself bought 5 wooded acres on an island in the Pacific Northwest equipped with generators and solar panels, as The New Yorker reported in 2017.

  據《紐約客》(The New Yorker)2017年報道,離開Facebook后,加西亞·馬丁內斯自己在太平洋西北部的一個小島上買了5英畝林地,配備了發電機和太陽能電池板。

  The newly rich from normal backgrounds are the most anxious of all, said Jennifer Streaks, a personal finance commentator and CNBC contributor.

  個人理財評論員、CNBC撰稿人珍妮弗·斯特里克斯(Jennifer Streaks)表示,在所有人當中,出身平凡的新貴最焦慮。

  “Imagine growing up middle class or even poor and then amassing millions,” Streaks said. “This sounds like the American dream, but suddenly you have a $5 million apartment, a $200,000 car and a family that has these expectations.”

  “想象一下在中產階級甚至窮人家長大,然后積聚了數百萬美元,”斯特里克斯說。“這聽起來像是美國夢,但突然間你有了一套價值500萬美元的寓所,一輛20萬美元的車和一個達到這些期待值的家庭。”

  A panic ensues when those people believe “that they are one bad investment away from being broke.”

  當這些人認為“只要有一次糟糕的投資,就會破產”,恐慌就會隨之而來。

And the Rich Become Anxious and Isolated 富人變得焦慮和孤立

  It’s not like Jeff Bezos, the $110 billion man, is going to have to auction off his $65 million Gulfstream jet if he makes a bad bet on Amazon delivery drones (or goes through a $36 billion divorce).

  身家1100億美元的富翁杰夫·貝佐斯(Jeff Bezos)在亞馬遜送貨無人機上押注失誤(或者經歷360億美元的離婚),也不至于要被迫拍賣他那架6500萬美元的灣流(Gulfstream)飛機。

  Even so, the isolation that often accompanies extreme wealth can provide an emotional impulse to keep on earning, long after material comforts have been met, said T. Byram Karasu, an emeritus professor of psychiatry at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx who said he has worked with numerous high earners in his private practice.

  即便如此,時常伴隨巨富的孤立感可以在物質享受得到滿足很久之后,提供一種繼續賺錢的情感沖動,布朗克斯區的阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦醫學院(Albert Einstein College of Medicine)精神病學榮休教授T·拜拉姆·卡拉蘇(T. Byram Karasu)說,他說在私營執業期間接觸過大量高收入者。

  Apex entrepreneurs and financiers, after all, are often “adrenaline-fueled, transgressive people,” Karasu said. “They tend to have laser-focused digital brains, are always in transactional mode, and the bigger they get, the lonelier they are, because they do not belong.”

  畢竟,頂尖的企業家和金融家通常都是“腎上腺素分泌旺盛、不循規蹈矩的人”,卡拉蘇說。“他們往往擁有高度專注的數字大腦,總是處于交易模式,并且他們做得越大就越孤獨,因為他們沒有歸屬感。

  Berglas, a onetime member of the Harvard Medical School faculty in psychology, said: “If you can’t relate to people, you presume that the failure to have rewarding relationships is because of jealousy — your house is three-X your neighbors’, and they look at your brand-new Corvette and drool. It’s a compensatory mechanism — ‘I might not have a ton of friends, but I can do anything I want and I’m the most powerful SOB there is.”

  曾在哈佛醫學院教授心理學的伯格拉斯說:“如果你無法與人接觸,你會假定沒有成功的人際關系是因為嫉妒——你的房子是你鄰居的三倍,而他們看到你嶄新的科爾維特(Corvette)車就會流口水。這是一種補償機制——‘我可能沒有很多朋友,但我可以做任何我想做的事情,我是世界上最厲害的混蛋。’”

  Limitless opportunity, extreme isolation. They already own the present. What else is left to buy but tomorrow, and the tomorrow after that? Suddenly, the fetish of the superrich for space tourism starts to make sense.

  無限的機會,極度的孤立。他們已經擁有現在。除了明天,和明天的明天,還有什么可以買?突然之間,超級富豪對太空旅游的迷戀開始變得合理。

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