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涓浗绔炲僵缃戠鐞冭绠?:名畫《吶喊》究竟蘊含著什么意義?

篮球竞彩nba www.xvrnl.com   What is the meaning of The Scream?

  名畫《吶喊》究竟蘊含著什么意義?

  Beneath a boiling sky, aflame with yellow, orange and red, an androgynous figure stands upon a bridge. Wearing a sinuous blue coat, which appears to flow, surreally, into a torrent of aqua, indigo and ultramarine behind him, he holds up two elongated hands on either side of his hairless, skull-like head.

  在一片沸騰的天空下,黃、橙、紅三色交相輝映,一個男女莫辨的人站在橋上。他身上那超現實主義的藍色衣服蜿蜒有致,似乎要匯入身后的湖綠色、靛藍色和群青色的背景,他抬起兩只長長的胳膊托住面頰,就像一具骷髏,頭頂已經沒了頭發。

  His eyes wide with shock, he unleashes a bloodcurdling shriek. Despite distant vestiges of normality – two figures upon the bridge, a boat on the fjord – everything is suffused with a sense of primal, overwhelming horror.

  他恐懼地瞪大雙眼,發出驚恐的尖叫。盡管遠處有些許正常的元素——橋上有兩個人,峽灣里還有一艘船——但畫面上的一切都充斥著原始而壓抑的恐怖氛圍。

  2012年,1895年創作的板上粉彩版《吶喊》在紐約蘇富比拍賣行拍出近1.2億美元(7500萬英鎊)的天價

  This, of course, is The Scream, by the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch – the second most famous image in art history, after Leonardo’s Mona Lisa.

  不用多說,這就是挪威畫家愛德華·蒙克(Edvard Munch)創作的《吶喊》。它是美術史上僅次于《蒙娜·麗莎》的第二名畫。

  Or, to be precise, it is one of four versions of The Scream that Munch created in his lifetime. The earliest painted version, from 1893, is in Oslo’s National Gallery. Elsewhere in the city, the Munch Museum boasts the other painted version, from 1910, as well as a rendition in pastel from 1893.

  不過,由于蒙克一生總共創作了4個版本的《吶喊》,所以精確地說,這只是其中的1個版本。最早的版本完成于1893年,目前藏于奧斯陸的挪威國家畫廊。同樣在奧斯陸,蒙克博物館則收藏了分別創作于1910年和1893年的另外兩個版本。

  But the version I am describing, a pastel-on-board from 1895, still in its original frame, is the only one of the four that remains in private hands. In 2012, it briefly set the record for the most expensive artwork ever to sell at auction, when, after 12 minutes of bidding, it fetched almost $120 million (£75 million) at Sotheby’s in New York. The buyer was the American financier Leon Black, who has now lent the work to a new exhibition, Munch and Expressionism, at the Neue Galerie in New York.

  但我現在描述的這個板上粉彩版創作于1895年,至今仍然使用最初的畫框,這也是4個版本中唯一被私人收藏的。2012年,它曾經短暫保持過藝術作品拍賣成交價格最高紀錄。當時,經過12分鐘的競拍后,它最終在紐約蘇富比拍賣行以將近1.2億美元(7,500萬英鎊)的天價成交。買家是美國金融家利昂·布萊克(Leon Black),他現在將這幅作品租借給紐約新美術館(Neue Galerie)的“蒙克與表現主義展”(Munch and Expressionism)進行展出。

  “The most prized version is the oil painting in the National Gallery in Oslo,” says the art historian Jill Lloyd, who has curated the exhibition. “But the pastel version is incredible, because the colour is so vivid, so fresh, it’s like it was made yesterday. In my mind, it is the most intense version: because pastel is such a free medium, you can see Munch altering lines and changing contours. So it has this unbelievably charged, vital surface, which you don’t really get in the oil paintings in the same way.”

  “最珍貴的版本是挪威國家畫廊的油畫版,”藝術史學家吉爾·勞埃德(Jill Lloyd)說,他參與策劃了“蒙克與表現主義展”。“但粉彩版同樣讓人難以置信,因為色彩鮮活而生動,就像昨天剛剛完成的作品一樣。在我看來里,這是表現力最強的版本:因為粉彩是一種自由的媒介,你可以看到蒙克修改的線條和輪廓。所以才有了這種令人難以置信的鮮活效果,這是油畫所無法比擬的。”

Existential angst 存在性焦慮

  The exhibition at the Neue Galerie explores the relationship between Munch, who was born the second of five children to an impoverished military doctor in 1863, and the avant-garde Expressionist art movement that emerged in Germany and Austria in the early years of the 20th Century. Although the show concentrates on the latter stages of the artist’s career (Munch died in 1944), it still finds room for The Scream of 1895, which he created three years after first arriving in Berlin, where he quickly made a notorious name for himself.

  紐約新美術館的這場展覽探討了蒙克與先鋒派表現主義藝術運動之間的關系。蒙克1863年出生在一個貧困的軍醫家庭,家里共有5個孩子,他排行老二。而先鋒派表現主義藝術運動則在20世紀初興起于德國和奧地利。盡管展覽著眼于是蒙克藝術生涯的后期(他于1944年去世),但仍然為1895年創作的這幅《吶喊》找到了一席之地。那時的蒙克剛剛來到柏林3年,但卻很快在那里聲名鵲起。

  It was in Germany, during several creatively frenzied years, while fraternising with like-minded artists and writers, such as his close friend August Strindberg, at a bar called the Black Piglet, that Munch created the major paintings which remain his best-known works, including The Vampire and Madonna. They were conceived for his epic, semi-autobiographical series The Frieze of Life, which transmuted his own high-keyed emotions concerning love, sexuality and death into universal symbols. The original, 1893 version of The Scream was one of 22 elements in the cycle.

紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com/

  在德國的幾年間,蒙克的創作激情得到了充分激發,他當時在一家名叫“黑豬”(Black Piglet)的酒吧與志趣相投的畫家和作家建立了深厚的友誼,包括他的好友奧古斯特·斯特林堡(August Strindberg)。正是在那段時期,蒙克創作了至今享譽世界的重要作品,包括《吸血鬼》(The Vampire)和《麥當娜》(Madonna)。這都是在為他后來那部半交響樂式的宏偉巨著《生命的飾帶》(The Frieze of Life)做鋪墊。這個系列的作品將他自己對愛情、性和死亡等問題的高亢情感轉化成通用的符號。1893年創作的第一版《吶喊》就是這個系列的22幅作品之一。

  In 1892, Munch painted a precursor of The Scream called Sick Mood at Sunset, Despair. The composition – bloody sky, bridge with three figures, bluey-green lake and landscape – is strikingly similar, but the style, though relatively radical for the time, didn’t assault tradition in the manner of The Scream. The latter painting was Munch’s breakthrough, as ferocious existential anguish overwhelmed the earlier mood of polite melancholy.

  1892年,蒙克繪制了《吶喊》的前身《日落時的陰郁情緒,絕望》(Sick Mood at Sunset, Despair)?;嫻墓鉤捎搿賭藕啊販淺O嗨?mdash;—血色的天空,3個人站在橋上、湖水和景色都涂成了藍綠色。然而,盡管那幅畫在當時看來有些激進,但卻并不像《吶喊》那樣離經叛道。后者是蒙克畫風的一次突破,以強烈的“存在性焦慮”壓倒了早先那“儒雅的憂郁”。

  An entry in Munch’s diary, dated 22 January 1892, recorded the inspiration for The Scream: “I was walking along the road with two friends – the sun went down – I felt a gust of melancholy – suddenly the sky turned a bloody red. I stopped, leaned against the railing, tired to death – as the flaming skies hung like blood and sword over the blue-black fjord and the city – my friends went on – I stood there trembling with anxiety – and I felt a vast infinite scream through nature.”

  蒙克在1892年1月22日的一篇日記中記錄了《吶喊》的靈感來源:“我跟兩個朋友一起迎著落日散步——我感受到一陣憂郁——突然間,天空變得血紅。我停下腳步,靠著欄桿,累得要死——感覺火紅的天空像鮮血一樣掛在上面,刺向藍黑色的峽灣和城市——我的朋友繼續前進——我則站在那里焦慮得發抖——我感覺到大自然那劇烈而又無盡的吶喊。”

  The figure in The Scream, then, may be a kind of self-portrait of the artist, whose older sister, Sophie, had died when he was 13. Art historians have also suggested another source for it – a Peruvian mummy that Munch saw at the World’s Fair in Paris in 1889.

  所以,《吶喊》中的人物或許是蒙克的自畫像。他的姐姐索菲(Sophie)在他13歲時就去世了。藝術史學家還認為,《吶喊》中的人物或許還有另外一個來源,那就是蒙克在1889年巴黎世博會上看到的一具秘魯木乃伊。

  At the Neue Galerie, The Scream is the final image that visitors encounter in the exhibition, because, as Lloyd says, “Everything about it is the essence of Expressionism.”

  在新美術館里,《吶喊》是參觀者們看到的最后一幅畫。勞埃德表示,之所以這樣設計,是因為“關于它的一切都是表現主義的精髓”。

We all scream 我們都在吶喊

  Of course, from an art-historical perspective, Lloyd is correct. Within the exhibition, a glowering woodcut from 1917 by the German artist Erich Heckel makes plain the Expressionist debt to Munch: Heckel’s composition, in which a man holds his temples while standing in a forbidding wasteland that seems to explode into shards of light, is obviously indebted to Munch’s black-and-white 1895 lithograph of The Scream. In the early 20th Century, this print was the most widely circulated version of Munch’s picture. 紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com

  當然,從藝術史學的角度來看,勞埃德做的沒錯。在那次展覽中,德國藝術家艾里希·黑克爾(Erich Heckel)創作于1917年的一幅木版畫闡明了這位表現主義畫家對蒙克的敬意:黑克爾的作品里有一個男子,他捂著太陽穴站在一片似乎要爆裂成光束的荒地里。這顯然是在對蒙克1895年創作的《吶喊》黑白平版印刷畫致敬。在20世紀早期,這也是蒙克作品最廣為流傳的一個版本。

  Yet it wasn’t only the Expressionists who were influenced by Munch. The Scream was the ancestor of Francis Bacon’s pictures of howling popes. In 1984, Andy Warhol made a series of screen-prints that recast The Scream in bright, eye-popping colours.

  然而,受到蒙克影響的不只是表現主義畫家。弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon)《尖叫的教皇》(Howling Pope)系列作品也受到了《吶喊》的啟發。1984年,安迪·沃霍爾(Andy Warhol)也創作了一系列絲網印刷作品,用奪人眼球的明亮色彩重新詮釋了《吶喊》。

  The Scream also happens to be Tracey Emin’s favourite “historical” painting: in 1998, she even made a film in which she visited a Norwegian fjord and hollered for a full minute, while the camera lingered on the water. The charismatic Serbian performance artist Marina Abramovic persuaded inhabitants of Oslo to scream in public as a tribute to Munch. Echo Lake (1998), a sinister painting by the British artist Peter Doig, features a spectral policeman clutching his head in the manner of Munch’s Scream.

  《吶喊》還是翠西·艾敏(Tracey Emin)最喜歡的“歷史”繪畫:1998年,她甚至專門拍攝了一部影片。在片中,她來到了挪威的一個峽灣,在那里呼喊了整整1分鐘時間,鏡頭則始終落在水面上。塞爾維亞行為藝術家瑪麗娜·阿布拉莫維奇(Marina Abramovic)也說服奧斯陸的居民一起在公共場合尖叫,以此紀念蒙克。英國畫家彼得·多伊格(Peter Doig)在1998年創作了《回聲湖》(Echo Lake),里面有一個幽靈般的警察像蒙克《吶喊》里的主人公一樣抓住自己的頭。

  Arguably, though, the most stunning thing about The Scream isn’t its impact upon subsequent art, but the way it transcended art history to become a touchstone of popular culture. The Scream has been ripped off, caricatured and lampooned so often that it is now far more famous, in its own right, than its creator.

  但《吶喊》最令人驚奇的或許并非它對后來的藝術所產生的影響,而在于它竟然超脫了藝術史的范疇,成為了流行文化的試金石?!賭藕啊肪1桓謀喑陜蚍澩套髕?,使得這幅畫本身的知名度遠遠超過了它的創作者。

  People who have never heard of Munch still recognise The Scream, thanks to the innumerable references that have been made to it, in everything from The Simpsons to Wes Craven’s slasher franchise Scream, with its ‘Ghostface’ mask, inspired by Munch’s painting, worn by the killers. The thefts from museums in Oslo of different versions of The Scream – one in 1994, the other a decade later – only enhanced the image’s notoriety.

  由于經常在各種場合被人引用,所以很多人雖然從未聽說過蒙克,但卻仍然認識《吶喊》這幅畫。無論是《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)還是韋斯·克雷文(Wes Craven)的《驚聲尖叫》(Scream)系列恐怖片中的殺手佩戴的“鬼臉面具”,都可以看到《吶喊》的身影。挪威國家畫廊兩個版本的《吶喊》雖然曾經先后被盜——一幅在1994年,另外一幅發生在10年后——但卻進一步提升了這幅作品的知名度。

  In part, says Lloyd, the ubiquity of The Scream is a result of the fact that “it’s easy to make into a caricature – and that is not the case with many paintings. As an image, it is pared down to the essence, which means that once you’ve seen it, you don’t forget it: it’s very easy to understand as a visual idea. And, of course, by now, it has been everywhere: on handbags, posters, mugs, God knows what.”

  勞埃德表示,《吶喊》之所以受到流行文化的追捧,是因為“很容易用它改編成漫畫作品——這是很多名畫所不具備的特點。作為一幅畫作,它的元素十分簡練,因此可以達到過目不忘的效果:作為一種視覺觀念,它很容易被人理解。所以,它如今隨處可見也就成了理所當然的事情,手袋、海報、馬克杯,幾乎任何地方都能看到它的身影。”

  At the same time, it is hard fully to explain its universal appeal. For Lloyd, it was successful, as an image, because it articulated an important shift that occurred within Western culture around the turn of the 20th Century. “The Scream is one of those images that sums up a changing point in history,” she explains. “It presents man cut loose from all the certainties that had comforted him up until that point in the 19th Century: there is no God now, no tradition, no habits or customs – just poor man in a moment of existential crisis, facing a universe he doesn’t understand and can only relate to in a feeling of panic.”

  但與此同時,卻很難完全解釋它的廣泛吸引力。對勞埃德來說,《吶喊》作為一幅繪畫作品來說是成功的,因為它在20世紀初期給西方文化帶來了重要的改變。“《吶喊》是眾多合力促成歷史轉折的繪畫作品之一。”她解釋道,“在之前的19世紀,確定性正是令人們感到安逸的關鍵,而這幅畫則呈現了一個完全感受不到確定性的人:沒有上帝,沒有傳統,沒有習俗——只有一個深感存在?;哪腥?,面對著一個他完全不了解的宇宙,只能感受到深深的痛苦。”

  She adds: “That may sound very negative, but that is the modern state. This is what distinguishes modern man from post-Renaissance history up until that moment: this feeling that we have lost all the anchors that bind us to the world.”

  她補充道:“這聽起來似乎很消極,但這恰恰是現在的狀態。這就是現代人區別于那個時刻之前、文藝復興之后的歷史時期的特點:我們感覺自己失去了與世界相連的所有錨點。”

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