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绡悆绔炲僵鍗曞満 :無人駕駛帆船能穿越大西洋嗎?

篮球竞彩nba www.xvrnl.com   Can an autonomous sailboat cross the Atlantic?

  無人駕駛帆船能穿越大西洋嗎?

  No one has ever sailed an autonomous boat across the Atlantic. Few have even tried – just a handful of teams have competed in the transatlantic Microtransat Challenge since it began in 2010. All have failed, for reasons including “caught in a fishing net”, “picked up by a fishing boat” or, frequently, simply lost at sea with a vague last-known location.

  至今沒有人操縱過一艘無人駕駛的船只穿越大西洋,甚至幾乎沒有人嘗試過。只有少數幾個比賽隊伍參加了自2010年發起的跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽(Microtransat Challenge),但都以失敗告終,原因包括船只"被魚網纏住","被漁船撈起來",或者是在海上迷了路,最后僅僅留下一個模糊的失蹤位置。

  The closest anyone has ever come was the summer of 2017, when a boat called Sailbuoy, built by a company called Offshore Sensing, travelled 1,500 kilometers – more than half way – before it started going in circles.

  最接近成功的一次是在2017年的夏天,當時一艘由一家名為離岸傳感公司(Offshore Sensing)制造的名為"航行浮標"(Sailbuoy)的船,行駛了1500公里,即超過了一半的航程,不過在此之后它開始繞圈,最終未能成功跨越。

  Officially, the winner of the Microtransat is the fastest team to achieve the crossing; in reality, the winner is the first. They have set rules, like a maximum vessel length (2.4m or 8ft) and an obstacle/collision avoidance system. But teams can just launch their boat anytime between July and December, and it doesn’t even matter what direction they go – Newfoundland to Ireland, or vice versa. Competitors include university clubs, but also autonomous vessel companies like Offshore Sensing (a company that makes sail-powered autonomous research vessels), and even the US Naval Academy. The main goal is just finishing, after all.

  根據官方規定,最快完成跨越的團隊即為跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽的勝出者;而在現實中,第一次實現跨越的無人駕駛帆船就是比賽贏家。主辦方制定了規則,比如船只的最大長度(2.4米)和船只必須安裝防障礙/防碰撞系統。參賽隊伍可以在7月到12月之間隨時啟動他們的船,不管他們從哪個方向航行——紐芬蘭到愛爾蘭,或者反之亦然。參賽隊伍包括大學俱樂部,也包括無人駕駛船只的制造公司,例如海洋傳感公司 (一家制造帆船動力自動駕駛研究船舶的公司),甚至美國海軍學院(US Naval Academy)等。畢竟,比賽的主要目標是完成跨越。

  “It’s just a really challenging environment,” says David Peddie, CEO of Offshore Sensing. “You have to cope with anything the ocean can throw at you.”

  離岸傳感公司的首席執行官大衛·佩迪(David Peddie)說:"這是一個非常具有挑戰性的環境,你必須應對海洋中可能出現的任何情況。"

  Sailbuoy has a bit of an advantage. It’s a commercial company that sells similar boats for applications in oceanography and meteorology research. The vessel it sent on the Microtransat had previously completed several months of autonomous sailing in the rougher North Sea without any problems.

  航行浮標(Sailbuoy)具有一定的優勢。離岸傳感公司是一家商業公司,專門銷售供海洋學和氣象研究使用的船只。它在跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽上派出的船此前已經在??齦叢擁謀焙?North Sea)完成了幾個月的獨立航行,沒有出現任何問題。

  From the top, the boat looks a little like a surfboard, with a solar panel in the middle, and a short, trapezoidal sail near the front. Aside from the sail, it sits low in the water, cutting through with a tapered nose and tail. Rough seas toss it about, even washing over the top, without damaging it, and it seems, almost miraculously, to keep a steady course.

  從頂部看,這艘船有點像沖浪板,中間有一塊太陽能板,在前面有一個短的梯形帆。除了船帆外,它吃水很深,用錐形的船頭和船尾開路。它能夠在波濤洶涌的大海中航行,甚至海水有時淹沒了整艘船,也不會損壞它,而且還能奇跡般地保持著穩定的航向。

  Others have eyes on the challenge, too, and new ideas on how to solve it. At the Aland University of Applied Sciences, a small team of engineers has been building robotic sailboats and entering them in competitions since 2013. This year, they bought a 2.8m (9.2ft) rigid “wing” type sail – the kind of symmetric airfoil you might see on World Cup sailboats – from a Swedish aircraft manufacturer and mounted it on their 2.4m (8ft) sailboat, ASPire.

  其他人也在關注這個挑戰賽,也提出了解決問題的新點子。在芬蘭的奧蘭應用科學大學(Aland University of Applied Sciences),一支由工程師組成的小團隊自2013年起就開始建造機器人帆船,并參加了比賽。今年,他們從瑞典飛機制造商那里購買了2.8米長的剛性"翼"型帆, 這是一種在世界杯帆船賽上亮相過的一種對稱翼,并將其安裝在他們2.4米長的無人駕駛帆船ASPire上。

  ASP stands for Autonomous Sailing Platform, and it’s white like Sailbuoy, but with a deeper, narrower hull and the tall, rectangular wing sail, flanked with two smaller airfoils. Both rigs were built not to compete in a race, but to act as research tools, carrying water sensors to measure pH, temperature, conductivity, and salinity. Despite the focus on research, the risks of using the new and unproven wing sail, and an untested system, Aland Sailing Robots entered its vessel in September’s World Robotic Sailing Championships, held in Horten, Norway – and won.<紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com/>

  ASP意為一個自動帆船平臺,它像航行浮標一樣,是白色的,但有一個更深更窄的船體和很高的矩形翼帆,兩側有兩個小的翼帆。這兩種帆裝不是為了參加比賽而制造的,而是作為研究工具,攜帶水傳感器來測量pH值、溫度、導電性和鹽度。盡管主要用于研究,但奧蘭航行機器人(Aland Sailing Robots)在9月份于挪威霍頓(Horten)舉行的世界機器人帆船錦標賽(World Robotic Sailing Championships)上,冒著使用未經驗證的翼帆和未經測試的系統的風險,最終取得了勝利。

  The World Robotic Sailing Championships is a spin-off of the Microtransat in which teams from universities or companies in related fields compete over four days in different tasks, including a fleet race, an area-scanning competition, collision avoidance, and station keeping, where the boat must hold its position for five minutes.

  世界機器人帆船錦標賽是跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽的衍生賽事,在為期四天的比賽中,來自相關領域的大學或公司的團隊需要完成不同的任務,包括競速賽、區域掃描比賽、避免碰撞比賽以及位置保持比賽(在比賽中船只必須在特定位置保持五分鐘)。

  On a windy first day along Norway’s Oslofjord inlet, a staggered-start race saw ASPire launch shortly after a boat from Norway. As the boats headed out into Horten’s inner harbour, a bay next to a shipyard with Sweden visible across the water, the team from Aland watched their boat slowly catch, then pass the leading boat.

  比賽的第一天有風,地點位于挪威奧斯陸峽灣(Oslofjord)的入口處。ASPire緊隨在一艘來自挪威的船只后面。當這些船只駛進霍頓的內港(這個海灣與瑞典的造船廠相鄰),ASPire慢慢地趕上了前方的對手,然后超過了領頭的船。

  “That was good to see,” says Anna Friebe, project manager for Aland Sailing Robots. “I didn’t really think we would be able to compete. But it ended up working, just in time.”

  "這太棒了!"奧蘭航行機器人的項目經理安娜·弗萊比(Anna Friebe)說,"我真的沒想到我們能參與比賽,而且最終還成功了。"

  While the team’s strength is in software engineering and situational analysis, they still have to be adept enough at mechanical engineering to make the boat operate in the challenging seas. ASPire was built on a hull with stabilising lead weights in the keel that was used in a paralympic sailing competition. To this, in addition to the wing sail, the team mounted the research sensors and built a rig to winch those down into the water.

  雖然團隊的優勢在于軟件工程和情景分析,但他們仍然需要熟練掌握機械工程技能,才能使船在充滿挑戰的海洋中行駛。ASPire是在帆船基礎上改造的,它采用了一種除了在殘奧會帆船比賽中使用的用于穩定船體的鉛錘。此外,在翼帆之外,團隊還給它安裝了研究傳感器,并建造了將這些傳感器放置在水中的裝備。

  The boats at the World Robotic Sailing Championships vary in size and shape, from the futuristic-looking ASPire to a small, traditional two-sailed sloop that looks like the kind of remote-control sailboat a kid might sail on a pond. On the second day of the competition, the fjord was shrouded in rain as the boats used the wind, the angle of their sails, and their rudders, to sit precisely in position without moving. Like all the competitions, an onboard computer, programmed ahead of time, had to be capable of recognising the wind conditions, understanding its own location, and manipulating the sail and rudder to compensate. This too, Aland won, ahead of second-place hosts University College of Southeast Norway and US Naval Academy in third place.

  參加世界機器人帆船錦標賽的船在大小和形狀上都有所不同,比如前衛的ASPire和傳統的小型單桅雙帆船,后者看起來就像孩子在池塘上操控的??胤?。在比賽的第二天,奧斯陸峽灣下起了雨,參賽船只需要利用風、帆的角度以及船舵,就可以保持在當前位置上不動。就像所有的比賽一樣,機載計算機和預編程序必須能夠識別風況,了解它自己的位置,并根據情況操縱帆和舵。奧蘭取得了勝利,排名第二位的是挪威東南大學(University College of Southeast Norway),美國海軍學院則排名第三。 紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com

  Day three featured area scanning, where boats had 30 minutes to cover as much of a designated area as possible. Most used a traditional tacking manoeuvre to trace a path, playing out line to open the sail, or reeling it in to change the angle. ASPire’s wing sail instead rotated around a central mast, which Friebe says simplified the operations. Seen from overhead, ASPire’s path looks like a lawn-mower grid, compared to other boat’s piles of spaghetti, and so Aland made a full sweep, as day four’s collision avoidance event was cancelled due to a lack of sufficient wind.

  第三天進行了區域掃描賽,船只有30分鐘的時間來到達盡可能多的指定區域。大多數人都使用傳統的固定方式來追蹤一條路線,使用繩索開帆,或者用它來改變角度。ASPire的翼帆繞著一個中心桅桿旋轉,弗萊比說這是簡化了操作。從頭頂上看,ASPire的路徑看起來像是割草機,而其他船只像是意大利面,因此奧蘭包攬了全部獎項,第四天的避免碰撞比賽由于缺乏足夠的風力被取消。

  Aland Sailing Robots was formed to compete in the Microtransat, but financial pressure – most of their funding comes from the European Regional Development Fund and goes toward the marine research platform – means they haven’t had the resources to make an attempt at the crossing. The fun of competition and the long-term quest to cross the Atlantic are, for many of the participants, byproducts of business or research projects.

  奧蘭帆船機器人是為了參加跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽而組建的,但是迫于資金壓力(他們的大部分資金來自歐洲區域發展基金,并致力于海洋研究平臺),這意味著他們沒有足夠的資源來嘗試穿越大西洋。因此對許多參賽者來說,比賽的樂趣和對跨越大西洋的長期努力都是商業或研究項目的副產品。

  The aim of the Microtransat, according to organiser Colin Sauze, is to contribute to ocean-monitoring platforms, but also to provide a learning opportunity.

  據組織者科林·索茲(Colin Sauze)介紹,跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽的目的就是為了促進海洋監測平臺的建設,但同時也提供一個學習的機會。

  Both Aland and Offshore Sensing are focusing primarily on aquatic research. Robots offer several big advantages over the other means of acquiring ocean data, says Peddie. The other options – a drifting buoy, or a manned vessel – are less mobile or more expensive. A traditional research vessel can cost $20,000 (£15,180) per day, which Peddie says could run an autonomous sailboat for several months, including the cost of the boat. Furthermore, small boats (Sailbuoy is two metres long and weighs 60kg (200lbs)) can go places manned boats can’t, like the path of a hurricane, or volcanic or iceberg fields.

  奧蘭帆船機器人和離岸傳感都主要關注海洋研究。佩迪說,在獲取海洋數據的方法上,無人駕駛帆船具有幾大優勢。其他方案,比如漂流的浮標,或者一艘載人船只,欠缺機動性或花費更為昂貴。傳統的研究船只運營成本每天可以高達20,000美元(15,180英鎊),而包括建造成本在內的無人駕駛帆船則可以依靠這筆費用運行幾個月之久,佩迪介紹說。此外,小型船只(航行浮標2米長、重60公斤)可以航行至載人船只無法到達的地方,比如颶風路徑,或火山或冰山區等。

  Many of the other teams, both in the Microtransat and the World Robotic Sailing Championships, are either run by industry, or partnered with industry. The US Naval Academy team uses it as education for naval personnel (their boat, Trawler Bait, has been caught by fishermen more than once). Half of the Chinese team is from Shanghai University, and the other half is from a company. The Norwegian naval research institute sent an autonomous boat to help with the event.

  許多其他的團隊,無論是在跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽中,還是在世界機器人航行錦標賽上,要么由行業管理,要么是與行業合作。美國海軍學院的團隊將其用作海軍人員的教育(他們的船——拖網誘餌(Trawler Bait),已經不止一次被漁民捕獲)。中國團隊中有一半來自上海大學,另一半來自一家公司。挪威海軍研究所派出了一艘無人帆船只來協助賽事。

  And a lot of what they work on can be applied even beyond sailing vessels. Autonomous shipping is already burgeoning, and the standards Microtransat competitors must meet for collision avoidance are the same ones put out by the International Maritime Organisation, and the automatic identification system that the Aland team used to transmit and receive course and speed to other vessels is the same one that commercial ships use.

  他們所做的許多工作甚至可以應用在帆船之外。自動化航運已經蓬勃發展, 標準跨大西洋機器人航海挑戰賽競爭者必須滿足的避碰要求與國際海事組織相同。而奧蘭團隊使用的用來發送和接收其他船只路線和速度的自動識別系統也與商業船只相同。

  “For us, as a company, it wasn’t a really big deal, the actual Microtransat,” says Peddie. “But I’ve been following these guys for a number of years, and I think it’s an interesting concept. It’s also something which has historic significance, like Lindbergh flew over basically the same distance connecting America to Europe.”

  佩迪說:"對我們來說,作為一家公司,這并不是真正的大事。但我已經關注這些人好幾年了,我認為這是個有趣的概念。這也是具有歷史意義的事,就像當年林德伯格(Lindbergh)從美洲飛行到歐洲一樣。"

  Still, Peddie plans to try again next year, once the Sailbuoy, which was picked up by a fishing vessel, is returned and fixed (they still don’t know quite what’s wrong with it). “We’d just like to be the first ones who do it, and manage to cross this part of the ocean,” he says. “Next year I expect we’ll manage the full 3,000 miles.”

  盡管如此,佩迪還是計劃明年再試一次,因為航行浮標被一艘漁船打撈起來,并被歸還修復(他們仍然不知道出現了什么問題)。"我們只是想成為第一批這樣做的人,并設法跨越大洋的這一部分,"他說,"明年,我們預計將完成3,000英里的航行。"

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