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绡僵* :無人駕駛船只將改變海上運輸未來

篮球竞彩nba www.xvrnl.com   The ships that could change the seas forever

  無人駕駛船只將改變海上運輸未來

  Last month in San Diego, California, an engineer sat down at his computer and gripped a joystick on the desk in front of him. He wasn’t playing a video game – he was piloting a massive cargo ship thousands of miles away off the coast of Scotland.

  上個月在加州圣迭戈(San Diego),一位工程師正坐在電腦桌旁,手里握著桌上的游戲操縱桿。他并不是在玩游戲,而在操控一艘此刻正在數千公里外的蘇格蘭海岸航行的巨型貨輪。

  The engineer’s joystick was directly linked to that vessel, via satellite, allowing him to control its movements precisely – entirely by manual remote control. He watched carefully as a virtual ship’s changing position was plotted on his screen. Meanwhile, on board the ship itself, other workers overseeing the test eyed their equipment and felt the craft bob and pitch under their feet. Over the course of a four-hour experiment – carried out by Finnish energy and technology firm Wärtsilä – it was manipulated by their colleague half-way round the world.

  工程師的操縱桿通過衛星通信與貨輪保持連接,他由此可以僅靠手動??夭僮鞫房刂圃誶Ю鎦獾拇囊貧較?。此刻,計算機屏幕上的船只虛擬圖標正在不斷移動。與此同時,在這艘貨輪上,其他實驗人員正在一邊監控設備運轉,一邊監控船只的搖擺顛簸。這是芬蘭能源及科技企業瓦錫蘭公司(Wärtsilä)正在進行的一次為時四小時的實驗,實驗由分別位于地球兩端的人員共同完成。

  Wärtsilä believes that smarter ships of the future will allow ship owners to more efficiently control the movements of their vessels, reduce fuel consumption and lower emissions. It’s an ambitious idea to tackle a grand challenge of the 21st Century, in which we are simultaneously more inextricably interlinked in global trade, but also face climate change that could change weather patterns, sea levels and seriously affect the journey of goods moving from A to B.

  瓦錫蘭相信,未來的智能化船舶能夠讓船東更為高效地控制船舶的航行、降低能耗并削減排放。在各國空前緊密地通過國際貿易聯系在一起的21世紀,我們面臨氣候變化的重大威脅。氣候變化會導致極端惡劣天氣及海平面升高,嚴重影響全球貨物運輸。因此,自動駕駛船舶堪稱是解決這些問題的雄心之舉。

  What’s more? Those ships could be captain-free, and could one day be controlled from many miles away not by humans, but by computers.

  另外,這些船舶還可實現無人駕駛,有朝一日可以通過計算機,而非人進行遠距離操控。

  Shipping is a gigantic industry, but it is not known for being the most hi-tech. Many vessels criss-crossing the world’s oceans today are bulky, diesel-guzzling giants that haven’t fundamentally changed in many years.

  遠洋航運是一個規模巨大的產業,但其高科技含量卻不盡如人意。今天,在各大洋來往穿梭的很多輪船都是體型龐大,耗油量驚人的海上怪獸,這種現狀很多年都沒有出現顯著變化。

  Will ship designs change much in the near future? And is automation, which we are already seeing more of in road vehicles, about to hit the waves as well?

  在不遠的未來,船舶設計會出現明顯改進嗎?已經開始改變道路車輛面貌的自動化技術是否也將改變海洋運輸?

  A big driver for updating the world’s ships is the war on pollution. In fact, just 15 of the largest vessels produce the same amount of sulphur emissions as all the planet’s cars put together. But large companies are also, of course, looking for ways of maximising their profits.

  世界船舶革命的一個主要推動力在于治理污染的急迫需求。要知道,16艘世界最大船舶的污染物排放量就已和全球所有汽車的總排放量不相上下。當然,大型航運企業同時考慮還有如何實現其利潤最大化。

  Wärtsilä’s experiment is still some way from becoming an everyday reality in shipping, admits head of digital Andrea Morgante. But because ship owners could cut significant costs by removing human crews from their vessels, he’s convinced it has potential.

  瓦錫蘭公司數字化產業主管安德烈·莫甘特(Andrea Morgante)承認,瓦錫蘭開展的實驗要想成為航運業的現實還需要很長時間。但是,由于采用自動化技術后船東能大幅度削減人類船員的成本,他相信這一技術潛力巨大。

  “You could imagine new forms of tugs that are remote-controlled, to support vessels in the harbour,” he says. Another option would be ships that transport cargo around ports or along coastlines.<-->紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com<-->

  "想象一下能夠遠程???,在港口協助船只進出港的新型拖船,"他說。另一個有潛力的市場是在港口間或沿海岸線運送貨物的近?;醮?。

  In fact, one firm already working with others to test and deploy fully autonomous vessels that do this sort of thing without human pilots is Kongsberg, of Norway.

  挪威康斯伯格海事公司(Kongsberg)正在與其他企業合作測試并部署具有上述用途的全自動駕駛貨船。

  It has two ships in development, the Hrönn and the YARA Birkeland. The Birkeland, an 80-metre long (264ft) container transporter will also be fully electric and is planned to enter service in the second half of 2018.

  康斯伯格旗下有兩艘全自動駕駛貨船-Hrönn號和YARA Birkeland號正在建造。2018年下半年,80米長的全電驅動集裝箱船Birkeland號將投入使用。

  Peter Due, director of autonomy at Kongsberg, extols the accuracy of the sensors on board its test vehicles.

  康斯伯格自動化業務主管彼得·杜伊(Peter Due)對測試船只上采用的傳感器的精度贊嘆不已。

  “One system can see a beer can – you can’t tell if it’s Heineken or Carlsberg but you can see a beer can coming up close [on the water],” he explains. Machine learning trains the system to know what sort of objects are important to avoid, he adds.

  "監控系統能探測到一只啤酒罐,你看不清是海尼根(Heineken)還是嘉士伯(Carlsberg),但你能看到它正浮在水面上,距離船只越來越近,"他說?;餮澳芄謊盜廢低橙綰聞卸夏男┪鍰褰銜O?,需要規避,他說。

  “A seagull is not something to be [wary] of but if you have a swimmer it will recognise that and act accordingly.”

  "一只海鷗可以置之不理,但是如果發現水里有人游泳,就必須規避。"

  A recent report by the University of Southampton suggested autonomous ships will arrive faster than expected, because of falling technological costs and a demand to solve a labour shortage in some areas of shipping.

  英國南安普頓大學最近發布的一篇報告稱,隨著技術成本不斷下降,且某些航運產業領域出現勞動力短缺問題,自動駕駛船舶將比人們當初預計更快地成為現實。

  But as Due points out, bodies like the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) will probably take several years to design regulations that allow autonomous vessels to operate in international waters. Within a country’s national waters, however, local laws may allow for quicker adoption of such systems, he adds.

  然而正如杜伊所指出,國際海事組織(IMO)等機構可能需要好幾年才能制定出自動駕駛船舶在國際水域航行所需的相關規則。然而,在一個國家的領海內,只需本國法律許可,自動駕駛船舶就可以迅速投入使用,他說。

  Regardless of who or what is piloting future ships – might it be human or robot? - the design of massive, emission-spewing commercial vessels is set to change. And that’s another way that these vital modes of transport could lessen their impact on our planet.

  無論未來船舶是由人還是機器人操縱,今天體型巨大、噴出滾滾濃煙的商業船舶都將最終改變其設計,從而減弱其對地球環境的不良影響。

  It is possible, for example, to build ships out of composite materials, for example glass fibres and plastic, which could greatly reduce the weight of some vessels and thereby improve fuel consumption and increase cargo capacity.

  例如,可以用玻璃鋼和塑料等復合材料建造船舶,從而大幅度降低船舶自重,減少能耗,提高裝載量。

  The European Union recently launched a project – Fibreship – to develop composite material hulls for cargo ships more than 50 metres (165ft) in length.

紐約時報中英文網 //www.xvrnl.com/

  歐盟近期啟動了"纖維船舶"(Fibreship)計劃,以發展長度超過50米的復合材料貨輪船體。

  For some vessels, including passenger ships, this could be of benefit says Volker Bertram, a professor of ship design and a project manager at DNV GL, a classification society.

  DNL GL船級社船舶設計教授及項目經理沃爾克·波特拉姆(Volker Bertram)說,自動駕駛技術對于客輪等其他種類的船舶還會帶來額外的優勢。

  But he adds that for larger craft, especially those moving heavy cargo, steel will probably remain the material of choice.

  但是他說,對于大型船舶,尤其是裝載重型貨物的船舶,鋼仍然是最優材料。

  “If you have an oil tanker and 90% of the weight of the oil tanker is cargo, there is not much motivation to build it in a lightweight fashion,” he explains.

  "假如一艘油輪排水量的90%都是它裝載的石油,因此就不會有迫切需求采用輕量化材料,"他說。

  Eco Marine Power, based in Japan, is working on rigid sails featuring solar panels that can be fitted to cargo ships.

  日本Eco Marine Power公司正在研究裝備采用太陽能電池板的剛性帆作為船舶動力。

  “When we first started, it wasn’t that feasible to put solar [panels] on the rigid sails but the technology is always improving and the cost is coming down,” explains Greg Atkinson, director and chief technology officer.

  "開始時,在剛性帆上裝備太陽能電池板是不可行的。但是后來有了技術進步,成本也降低了,"公司社長兼首席技術官格里格·阿特金森(Greg Atkinson)表示。

  He says any ships that use Aquarius will still need an engine and traditional fuel source, but wind and solar could additionally be used to reduce fossil fuel consumption.

  他說,任何采用Aquarius系統的船只仍然需要發動機和傳統燃油系統,但是風能和太陽能將有助于減少化石燃料的消耗。

  Of the renewable energy portion, he believes that about 80% will come from the action of the wind on the sails and a further 20% from the solar panels.

  在驅動船只的可再生能源中,有80%的能量來自作用在帆上的風能,另外20%來自太陽能電池板。

  Eco Marine hopes to trial its system at sea on a bulk carrier – a type of large commercial ship that moves bodies of cargo like iron ore, coal or grain.

  Eco Marine希望在一艘大型船只——鐵礦石、煤炭或糧食的大型商業貨輪——上對系統進行測試。

  “They’re good target ships [for this technology],” explains Atkinson. “They’re going relatively slow and they’re sailing in some of the more favourable areas for wind.”

  "這類船只是這一新技術的目標市場,"阿特金森說。"它們的航速較慢,并且航線位于季風帶海域。"

  There are other such systems elsewhere in the world, as well, which plan to develop a cargo ship with rigid sails, this time a car carrier that could hold up to 2,000 vehicles.

  除了Eco Marine Power之外,有其他公司也正在開發貨船剛性帆技術,其中一家公司計劃為運載能力2,000輛汽車的貨運船安裝剛性帆。

  But there are additional costs involved with designs like this – and indeed risks. Rigid sails, of course, can be dangerous in high winds, especially if they cannot easily be folded onto or beneath the deck.

  然而,剛性帆也需要額外成本,同時也有風險。強風下,如果剛性帆無法折疊并收回到甲板上或甲板下,會造成很嚴重的危險。

  “It’s a bit sobering to see that so many concepts have been pushed, and via lots of publications, and we see relatively few installations,” notes Bertram. He points out that digital technology is aiding ship designers and helping them to more accurately simulate how their vessels will perform in different conditions at sea. Energy efficiency savings of a few percent may result from this work, he believes.

  "現在出現了很多新概念,各種論文也出版了很多,但是卻很少有概念成為現實,"波特拉姆說。在數字化技術的協助下,船舶設計師能夠更為精確地模擬船舶在不同??魷碌謀硐?,能把能耗至少降低幾個百分點。

  And techniques like 3D printing are probably going to change how some ship components are produced. A prototype 3D printed propeller was recently produced by a consortium of shipping companies in Rotterdam, Netherlands.

  3D打印等新技術將改變某些船舶零部件的制造工藝。最近,荷蘭鹿特丹的一家聯合造船企業利用3D打印技術制造了一只螺旋槳原型件。

  Of course, if a part breaks at sea and requires replacing, 3D printing it on board might be an attractive prospect for owners of some of the world’s largest ships.

  當然,如果在海上某些部件破損需要更換,船上的3D打印機就可解燃眉之急。對于最大船舶的船東而言,這無疑是一項極富吸引力的技術。

  These ships of the future – monster vessels piloted half a world away like a toy, built from futuristic materials that cut emissions and potentially powered by the Sun – are behemoths of the sea that might just change the face of Earth’s oceans forever.

  這些形形色色的未來船舶技術——在半個地球以外自由操控的巨輪、用新材料建造,排放量更少的船舶、以及由太陽能驅動的船舶——將徹底改變遠洋航運業的面貌。

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