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绮惧僵鐨勭鐞冭禌 :高山考古學家:與時間賽跑搶救“冰凍文物”

篮球竞彩nba www.xvrnl.com   A race to rescue frozen artefacts

  高山考古學家:與時間賽跑搶救“冰凍文物”

  Ice crystals landed on my face, falling from the ceiling of the tent and shocking me awake in a frozen flash. Through my many layers of fleece, I heard a faint snuffling noise. I unzipped my sleeping bag in a daze and sat up, with one eye on my canister of bear spray and one ear straining to listen.

  冰晶從帳篷頂上落下來,落到了我的臉上,那一瞬間的冰冷把我驚醒。透過我身上蓋的層層羊毛,我聽到了微弱的呼吸聲。迷迷糊糊中,我拉開睡袋,坐了起來,一只眼睛盯著我那罐防熊噴霧劑,一只耳朵使勁地聽著。

  All I heard was the rapids from the nearby creek and a welcoming whinny from one of our horses grazing in the alpine meadow outside Yellowstone National Park. Just then, I heard the fresh sound of sticks snapping as someone – or something – crept by. Opening the tent flap, I stared out across the foggy meadow below the Absaroka Mountains and then down at the ground, where a track from a large wolf was freshly imprinted in the soil, mere inches from where I had been sleeping.

  我聽到的只有附近小溪的急流水聲,和在黃石國家公園外草地上吃草的馬兒發出的嘶鳴聲。但就在這時,我聽到了樹枝折斷的聲音,就像是有人或什么東西躡手躡腳地經過時發出的。我打開帳篷,看著遠處阿布薩羅卡山(Absaroka Mountains)下的霧蒙蒙的草地,接著看到了眼前的地上印了一匹大野狼的足跡,離我睡覺的地方只有幾英寸遠。

  Over at the campfire, a colleague mentioned that a pack of four wolves had just been sniffing the outside of my tent. “It was only the mountains saying good morning,” she said, placing the kettle back onto the embers. “With a visit like that, we’re bound to have an extraordinary day.”

  在篝火旁,我的同事告訴我,之前有四匹狼在我的帳篷外面嗅來嗅去。“這只是群山在對我們問早安,”她說著,把水壺放回余火上。“有了這樣的拜訪,我們一定會有特別的一天。”

  In my 15 years of working with scientists in the US’ Rocky Mountains, I’ve come face to face with grizzly bears, escaped forest fires, swum across flooding rivers while holding onto horses and discovered prehistoric villages. But I’ve never considered a tent-side wolf visit to be a blessing. Yet, as the red light of the sun illuminated the slope above us, I looked up at the glistening snowfields and wondered which ancient, frozen stories the mountains would reveal today.

  在美國落基山脈(Rocky Mountains),我和其他科學家們一起工作的15年時間里,我曾與灰熊面對面、逃過森林大火、騎著馬越過洪水泛濫的河流,還發現過史前村落。但我從未想過野狼來到帳篷邊是一件幸事。然而,當太陽的紅光照亮我們上方的山坡時,我抬頭看著閃閃發光的雪原,就會想知道這些綿延的山脈下隱藏的故事。

  As an alpine archaeologist, I study how past cultures lived at high altitudes and snowy environments above the tree line. Visitors, eyes squinting and necks straining, often describe the alpine landscape’s wind-whipped crags and icy gorges as harsh and intimidating. But growing up at the foot of Wyoming’s Teton Range in the heart of the Rockies, I have always felt at home here. In fact, 3,000m is where I feel the most alive. Yet, it wasn’t until I started exploring my backyard from a different perspective that I realised the wilderness holds a vault of forgotten and untold stories that intertwine people and nature.

  作為一名高山考古學家,我研究過去的文化是如何在高海拔和雪域環境中存活的。游客們常常瞇起眼睛、伸長脖子,把高山風化的峭壁和冰冷的峽谷認為是令人生畏的。但我生長在落基山脈中心懷俄明州(Wyoming)的提頓山脈(Teton Range)下,在這里我反而總有一種家的感覺。事實上,3000米是我覺得最有活力的地方。然而,直到我開始從一個不同的角度探索這片土地,我才意識到這里蘊藏著那些被遺忘的、交織著人與自然的故事。

  一隊高山考古學家徒步前往懷俄明州提頓山脈的大本營

  As a teenager, I spent my summers guiding mountaineering trips throughout Wyoming. During one particular trip into the Wind River Range, I found an arrowhead next to our camp, and the notion that our tents were pitched in the exact spot where someone else had camped 2,000 years prior made me wonder why mountains have always attracted mankind. Upon starting college that autumn, I tried to research the history of Wyoming’s mountains, but could only find one reference in an old archaeological journal stating, “the high country was too harsh to support prehistoric people”.

  十幾歲的時候,我夏天在懷俄明州指導登山旅行。在一次進入溫德河山脈(Wind River Range)的旅行中,我在我們的營地旁邊發現了一個箭頭,一想到我們是在前人曾在2000年前扎過營的地方扎營,我就很想知道為什么山脈總是那么吸引著人類。那年秋天我上大學時,就開始研究懷俄明州山脈的歷史,但只是在一本很舊的考古雜志上找到了一個記錄,“高地的環境太惡劣,以至于無法讓史前時代的人生存”。

  Several months later, I discovered that an archaeologist from Wyoming named Dr Richard Adams had just unearthed an entire prehistoric village only a few miles away from where I had found the arrowhead. I contacted him and he invited me to join him on a project to excavate the village he had found. Adams showed me that the mountains held ancient secrets waiting to be uncovered, so I traded in my climbing rope for a trowel and began an exhilarating new career in search of our hidden past.

  幾個月后,我發現一位來自懷俄明州名叫理查德·亞當斯(Richard Adams)的考古學家,在上次我發現箭頭處幾英里外的地方發現了一個完整的史前村莊。于是我聯系了他,他也邀請我和他一起探索這個村莊。亞當斯向我展示了如何去發現那些隱藏在山脈中的古老秘密,于是我用登山繩換了一把鏟子,就開始了這項令人振奮的新事業——尋找我們被隱藏的過去。

  I now direct projects in the mountains of North America ranging from archaeological digs to satellite searches to locate prehistoric villages. It has been a fascinating adventure, and humbling to think it all began with a chance discovery as a 17-year-old.

  現在,我在北美的山區指導各種項目,從考古發掘到用衛星搜索史前村莊。這是令人著迷的冒險,而這一切都始于17歲時的一次意外發現。

  Because many archaeologists have long considered alpine environments too harsh to have supported ancient people, most mountains remain vastly unexplored. However, for those who have begun to work among the towering peaks across the globe, high elevations are an exciting terra incognita that are just beginning to be understood.

  長久以來,許多考古學家都認為高山環境太惡劣,不適合古代人類居住,因此大部分山脈仍未被人們探索。然而,對于那些已經在世界各地高山上開始探索工作的人來說,高山是一塊剛剛開始被人所了解,卻又令人興奮的未知領域。

  In summer, my colleagues and I trek deep into the Rocky Mountains, from the glacier-carved peaks of Wyoming to the high meadows of Colorado, in search of undiscovered villages, hunting structures, stone quarries and other evidence of life from about 13000BC (when humans are believed to have first arrived in North America) through the present. But unlike most archaeology, there is one thing that is particularly unique about our work: the clues we find aren’t always buried in the soil; sometimes they’re trapped under the ice.

  夏天,我和同事們徒步深入落基山脈,從懷俄明州的冰峰到科羅拉多州(Colorado)的高山草甸,尋找未被發現的村莊、建筑、采石場和其他公元前13,000年(被認為是人類第一次到達北美的時間)有人在這里生活過的痕跡。但與大多數考古學不同的是,我們發現的線索并不總是埋在土里。有時它們被凝固在冰中。

  In mountain ranges across the world, ancient people used snowfields, glaciers and ice patches to hunt, store food and use as bridges over otherwise impenetrable terrain. Just like modern-day trekkers, these ancient hikers occasionally dropped personal items, which, over time, became trapped and preserved in the ice. While we unearth many non-biodegradable, prehistoric stone artefacts, our most fascinating discoveries are so-called “ice patch artefacts” like arrow shafts and twine made of wood, leather and other organic material that would have otherwise decomposed if not entombed in a natural freezer.

  在世界各地的山脈中,古人利用雪原和冰川狩獵、儲存食物,并作為橋梁使用。就像現代的徒步旅行者一樣,古人偶爾也會掉落一些個人物品,隨著時間的推移,這些物品會被凝固在冰中保存起來。當我們挖掘出許多不可生物降解的史前石制品時,最吸引人的是所謂“冰封的文物”,比如箭桿和木制編織品、皮革或其他有機材料,如果不是擺在一個天然的冰箱中,它們一定會被分解掉。

  These incredibly rare materials not only offer a glimpse into ancient life we rarely get to see, but also hold invaluable clues about everything from the migration patterns of early humans to prehistoric cuisine to how the environment and weather has changed over the millennia.

  這些令人難以置信的稀有發現不僅讓我們看到了古代生活的一瞥,并且也反映了過去數千年中,環境和氣候的變化如何影響了人類的飲食和遷徙。

  While ice patches and glaciers possess a trove of scientific information, they are in imminent danger of being lost forever. Because of increasing global temperatures, mountain ice is melting at an unprecedented rate, and these frozen perishable artefacts that have remained preserved for thousands of years are quickly thawing and disintegrating. As a result, searching for ice patch artefacts is both an exciting opportunity, and a desperate race against time.

    蛐蛐英語 篮球竞彩nba www.xvrnl.com

  雖然冰原中蘊含這如此多的科學資料,但它們卻面臨著永遠消失的風險。由于全球氣溫不斷上升,山區的冰正以前所未有的速度融化,這些保存了數千年的冰凍易腐文物正在迅速融化和解體。因此,在冰原中尋找文物既是一件令人興奮的事,也是在與時間賽跑。

  In 2007, Dr Craig Lee from Montana State University discovered an oddly shaped stick melting out of an ice patch at 3,200m in northern Wyoming. After closer analysis, Lee realised that the stick was, in fact, a dart from a throwing spear crafted an astounding 10,300 years ago. To date, it’s the oldest frozen artefact found anywhere in the world. Lee’s unexpected discovery underscored the urgency of recovering these thawing artefacts and has prompted an intensified search to rescue them throughout the Rocky Mountains.

  2007年,蒙大拿州立大學(Montana State University)的克雷格·李(Craig Lee)在懷俄明州北部,3200米高的山上發現了一根形狀奇特的棍子從融化的冰中出現。經過研究分析,他意識到這根棍子實際上是一根10,300前制作的矛的頭部。這是迄今為止世界上發現時間最早的冰凍手工制品。李博士的意外發現也凸顯了拯救正在融化中的手工制品的重要性,讓人們更抓緊時間在落基山脈尋找、拯救它們。

  As more archaeologists have ventured into the North American alpine tundra in the past decade, artefacts ranging from 1,300-year-old arrows to woven wicker baskets to wooden bows have been unearthed, revealing some surprising discoveries. Wood analysis demonstrated that prehistoric groups favoured certain tree species for their arrows; frozen pollen offered detailed paleo-climatic records indicating that tree lines used to be much higher; and seeds from thawing scat showed that, unlike today, American bison once thrived above 3,000m. A vault of new information has become unlocked, but that door will not remain open forever. Given the sheer number of ice patches and their remote locations, we will never be able to reach them all in time.

  在過去的十年里,隨著更多的考古學家冒險進入北美高山凍土地帶,從編織的柳條籃子到1300年前的箭都被發掘了出來,同時也揭開了一些令人驚詫的發現。木材分析表明,史前人類群體偏愛某種木材的箭;冰凍的花粉則提供了古時的氣候記錄,表明那時的樹要比現在高得多;解凍的種子表明,美洲野牛曾經在3000米以上的高度上旺盛生長。新的信息儲藏室大門已經被打開,但這扇門并不會永遠敞開,考慮到冰川的數量和它們的偏遠位置,我們永遠不可能及時探索所有這些地方。

  In an age where computers and satellites have replaced machetes and pith helmets, many explorers lament that the age of discovery is over. Yet our expeditions echo the approaches of many of North America’s early inhabitants. Because we venture deep into the mountains in some of the most remote locations in the continental US, we need to rely on horses and cowboys to transport gear and food up the alpine slopes. We set up backcountry camps high above turquoise lakes, harvest edible plants from nearby meadows, roast fresh game like elk or bighorn sheep over an open fire and sleep under a sea of stars. In many ways, travelling and living in the footsteps of the ancient people we’re studying helps us to better understand them.

  在計算機和衛星取代了大刀和頭盔的時代,許多探險家哀嘆探索的時代已經結束了。然而,我們的探險與許多北美早期居民的做法遙相呼應:我們深入到美國大陸最偏遠的山區,需要依靠馬匹和牛仔來運送裝備和食物到高山上去。我們在綠松石湖的高處建立野外營地,從附近的草地上采集可食用的植物,燒烤麋鹿或大角羊來吃,睡在星空之下。我們在很多方面都像古人一樣生活,這也有助于我們更好地了解他們。

  We never know which ice patches may reveal prehistoric items, so our days are spent hiking over passes and exploring ridges to search for clues. When we spot artefacts or animal bones protruding from the melting summer ice, we carefully extract them and wrap them in gauze and plastic to ensure a safe journey on the horse ride home. Back at the lab, we photograph, radiocarbon date and identify the species of each artefact before returning it to a deep-freeze state at a museum or university repository. The thrill of discovering a prehistoric stone bowl or 8,000-year-old spearhead in the field is always exhilarating. But it’s in the laboratory that the fascinating stories of these artefacts begins to appear, such as what meals were prepared in the vessel and where ancient people travelled to acquire the stone for their weapon.

  我們永遠不知道哪塊冰上可能會發現史前的東西,所以我們的時間都用來徒步穿越山口和探索山脊。當我們在融化的夏季冰層中發現手工制品或動物骨頭時,會小心翼翼地把它們提取出來,用紗布和塑料包好,確保在騎馬回去的路上一切平安?;氐絞笛槭?,我們拍照,放射性碳測定它們的年代和種類。在野外里發現史前石碗或8000年前的矛頭的激動感覺總是令人興奮的,但在實驗室里,我們才能知道它們背后的迷人故事——例如這些容器中裝過什么食物,以及古代人們在哪里找到這些石頭作為武器。

  Despite the countless blisters, frosty evenings and hordes of mosquitos, I’m grateful to call the mountains my office. Every discovery of a whittled stick or a butchered bone at the ice’s edge reminds me of the small role I play in preserving the mountains’ and humanity’s shared history.

  盡管探索的過程辛苦萬分,歷經無數霜凍的夜晚和成群的蚊子侵襲,我還是很感激地將山脈稱為我的辦公室。每一次在冰山邊緣發現一根削過的棍子或被宰殺的動物骨頭,都讓我想起自己在?;ど鉸齪腿死喙餐分興繆蕕男〗巧?。

  As a young climber, I spent countless days exploring the towering peaks of the Tetons and would have told you that I knew everything about them. But during the past 15 years, I’ve learned that whether you’re in the most familiar or foreign of settings, there is always more to discover about a place. Everywhere in the world has a fascinating and new story to tell, if we only seek to uncover it.

  作為一名年輕的登山者,我花了無數的時間去探索提頓山脈,也和你們說過我知道這座山脈的一切。但在過去的15年里,我明白到無論你最熟悉的環境或是在國外陌生的環境,都會有更多東西等待被發現,世界上每個角落都隱藏著無數的迷人故事,只要我們愿意去探索和發現它們。

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